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Showing 1 - 10 of 605359 pathways
PathBank ID Pathway Name and Description Pathway Class Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0012089

Pw012952 View Pathway

Photosynthesis

Arabidopsis thaliana
Photosynthesis involves the transfer and harvesting of energy from sunlight and the fixation of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. This process occurs in higher plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Oxygenic photosynthesis requires water, which acts as an electron donor molecule. The reactions which involve the trapping of sunlight are known as "light reactions", and result in the production of NADPH, adenosine triphosphate, and molecular oxygen. The "dark reactions" are known as the Calvin cycle, and involve the use of the products of the light reactions to fix carbon dioxide and produce carbohydrates. Photosynthesis begins with photosystem II, located in the thylakoid membrane within chloroplasts, which captures light energy to transfer electrons from water to plastoquinone. This process generates oxygen as well as a proton gradient used to synthesize ATP. The D1/D2 (psbA/psbD) reaction center heterodimer binds P680, the primary electron donor of PSII as well as several subsequent electron acceptors. Next, the cytochrome b6-f complex mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). Plastoquinol shuttles electrons from PSII to cytochrome b6-f complex. Plastocyanin shuttles electrons from cytochrome b6-f complex to PSI. Photosystem I is a plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase which uses light energy to transfer an electron from the donor P700 chlorophyll pair to the electron acceptors A0, A1, FX, FA and FB in turn. The function of PSI is to produce the NADPH necessary for the reduction of CO2 in the Calvin-Benson cycle. Finally, the proton gradient allows ATPase to synthesize ATP from ADP. The light-independent Calvin-Benson cycle consist of nine reactions that take place in the chloroplast stroma. Beginning with the enzyme RuBisCO, D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate is converted into 3-phosphoglyceric acid. It requires magnesium ion as a cofactor. Next, chloroplastic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate into D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Then triose-phosphate isomerase catalyzes the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Next, the enzyme fructose-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzes the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Then fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase catalyzes the conversion of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into fructose-6-phosphate. It requires magnesium ion as a cofactor. Next, transketolase catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate into xylulose 5-phosphate. It requires a divalent metal cation and thiamine diphosphate as cofactors. Then the enzyme ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase is catalyzes the interconverson of xylulose 5-phosphate and D-ribulose 5-phosphate. Lastly, phosphoribulokinase catalyzes the conversion of D-ribulose 5-phosphate to regenerate D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. An alternative pathway intersects the Calvin-Benson cycle providing another route to synthesize D-ribulose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate, which both feed back into the main cycle, from dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This subpathway begins with the predicted enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate aldolase theorized to catalyze the converson of glycerone phosphate and D-erythrose 4-phosphate into sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate. Next, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate into D-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate. Next, transketolase catalyzes the converson of D-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate into D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate (which feeds back into the main cycle). Lastly, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase is the probable enzyme that catalyzes the interconverson of D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-ribulose 5-phosphate. D-ribulose 5-phosphate feeds back into the main cycle.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0002039

Pw002025 View Pathway

Oleic Acid Oxidation

Escherichia coli
The process of oleic acid B-oxidation starts with a 2-trans,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA that can be either be processed by an enoyl-CoA hydratase by interacting with a water molecules resulting in a 3-hydroxy-5-cis-tetradecenoyl-CoA, which can be oxidized in the fatty acid beta-oxidation. On the other hand 2-trans,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA can become a 3-trans,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA through a isomerase. This results interact with a water molecule through a acyl-CoA thioesterase resulting in a hydrogen ion, a coenzyme A and a 3,5-tetradecadienoate
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000939

Pw000922 View Pathway

Sulfur Metabolism

Escherichia coli
The sulfur metabolism pathway starts in three possible ways. The first is the uptake of sulfate through an active transport reaction via a sulfate transport system containing an ATP-binding protein which hydrolyses ATP. Sulfate is converted by the sulfate adenylyltransferase enzymatic complex to adenosine phosphosulfate through the addition of adenine from a molecule of ATP, along with one phosphate group. Adenosine phosphosulfate is further converted to phoaphoadenosine phosphosulfate through an ATP hydrolysis and dehydrogenation reaction by the adenylyl-sulfate kinase. Phoaphoadenosine phosphosulfate is finally dehydrogenated and converted to sulfite by phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase. This reaction requires magnesium, and adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate is the bi-product. A thioredoxin is also oxidized. Sulfite can also be produced from the dehydrogenation of cyanide along with the conversion of thiosulfate to thiocyanate by the thiosulfate sulfurtransferase enzymatic complex. Sulfite next undergoes a series of reactions that lead to the production of pyruvic acid, which is a precursor for pathways such as gluconeogenesis. The first reaction in this series is the conversion of sulfite to hydrogen sulfide through hygrogenation and the deoxygenation of sulfite to form a water molecule. The reaction is catalyzed by the sulfite reductase [NADPH] flavoprotein alpha and beta components. Siroheme, 4Fe-4S, flavin mononucleotide, and FAD function as cofactors or prosthetic groups. Hydrogen sulfide next undergoes dehydrogenation in a reversible reaction to form L-Cysteine and acetic acid, via the cysteine synthase complex and the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. L-Cysteine is dehydrogenated and converted to 2-aminoacrylic acid (a bronsted acid) and hydrogen sulfide(which may be reused) by a larger enzymatic complex composed of cysteine synthase A/B, protein malY, cystathionine-β-lyase, and tryptophanase, along with the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. 2-aminoacrylic acid isomerizes to 2-iminopropanoate, which along with a water molecule and a hydrogen ion is lastly converted to pyruvic acid and ammonium in a spontaneous fashion. The second possible initial starting point for sulfur metabolism is the import of taurine(an alternate sulfur source) into the cytoplasm via the taurine ABC transporter complex. Taurine, oxoglutaric acid, and oxygen are converted to sulfite by the alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine dioxygenase. Carbon dioxide, succinic acid, and aminoacetaldehyde are bi-products of this reaction. Sulfite next enters pyruvic acid synthesis as already described. The third variant of sulfur metabolism starts with the import of an alkyl sulfate into the cytoplasm via an aliphatic sulfonate ABC transporter complex which hydrolyses ATP. The alkyl sulfate is dehydrogenated and along with oxygen is converted to sulfite and an aldehyde by the FMNH2-dependent alkanesulfonate monooxygenase enzyme. Water and flavin mononucleotide(which is used in a subsequent reaction as a prosthetic group) are also produced. Sulfite is next converted to pyruvic acid by the process already described.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000932

Pw000915 View Pathway

Glycerol Metabolism II

Escherichia coli
Glycerol metabolism starts with glycerol is introduced into the cytoplasm through a glycerol channel GlpF Glycerol is then phosphorylated through an ATP mediated glycerol kinase resulting in a Glycerol 3-phosphate. This compound can also be obtained through sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine reacting with water through a glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase producing a benzyl alcohol, a hydrogen ion and a glycerol 3-phosphate or the campound can be introduced into the cytoplasm through a glycerol-3-phosphate:phosphate antiporter. Glycerol 3-phosphate is then metabolized into a dihydroxyacetone phosphate in both aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In anaerobic conditions the metabolism is done through the reaction of glycerol 3-phosphate with a menaquinone mediated by a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein complex. In aerobic conditions, the metabolism is done through the reaction of glycerol 3-phosphate with ubiquinone mediated by a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P]+]. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is then introduced into the fructose metabolism by turning a dihydroxyacetone into an isomer through a triosephosphate isomerase resulting in a D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate which in turn reacts with a phosphate through a NAD dependent Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase resulting in a glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate. This compound is desphosphorylated by a phosphoglycerate kinase resulting in a 3-phosphoglyceric acid.This compound in turn can either react with a 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase or a 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase resulting in a 2-phospho-D-glyceric acid. This compound interacts with an enolase resulting in a phosphoenolpyruvic acid and water. Phosphoenolpyruvic acid can react either through a AMP driven phosphoenoylpyruvate synthase or a ADP driven pyruvate kinase protein complex resulting in a pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid reacts with CoA through a NAD driven pyruvate dehydrogenase complex resulting in a carbon dioxide and a Acetyl-CoA which gets incorporated into the TCA cycle pathway.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000993

Pw000977 View Pathway

Secondary Metabolites: Cysteine Biosynthesis from Serine

Escherichia coli
The pathway starts with a 3-phosphoglyceric acid interacting with an NAD driven D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase / α-ketoglutarate reductase resulting in an NADH, a hydrogen ion and a phosphohydroxypyruvic acid. This compound then interacts with an L-glutamic acid through a 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase / phosphohydroxythreonine aminotransferase resulting in a oxoglutaric acid and a DL-D-phosphoserine. The latter compound then interacts with a water molecule through a phosphoserine phosphatase resulting in a phosphate and an L-serine. The L-serine interacts with an acetyl-coa through a serine acetyltransferase resulting in a release of a Coenzyme A and a O-Acetylserine. The O-acetylserine then interacts with a hydrogen sulfide through a O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase A resulting in an acetic acid, a hydrogen ion and an L-cysteine
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000927

Pw000910 View Pathway

Purine Nucleotides De Novo Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
The biosynthesis of purine nucleotides is a complex process that begins with a phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate. This compound interacts with water and L-glutamine through a amidophosphoribosyl transferase resulting in a pyrophosphate, L-glutamic acid and a 5-phosphoribosylamine. The latter compound proceeds to interact with a glycine through an ATP driven phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase resulting in the addition of glycine to the compound. This reaction releases an ADP, a phosphate, a hydrogen ion and a N1-(5-phospho-β-D-ribosyl)glycinamide. The latter compound interacts with formic acid, through an ATP driven phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 2 resulting in a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion and a 5-phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide. The latter compound interacts with L-glutamine, and water through an ATP-driven phosphoribosylformylglycinamide synthetase resulting in a release of a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion, a L-glutamic acid and a 2-(formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine. The latter compound interacts with an ATP driven phosphoribosylformylglycinamide cyclo-ligase resulting in a release of ADP, a phosphate, a hydrogen ion and a 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide. The latter compound interacts with a hydrogen carbonate through an ATP driven N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase resulting in a release of a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion and a N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide.The latter compound then interacts with a N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase resulting in a 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate. This compound interacts with an L-aspartic acid through an ATP driven phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase resulting in a phosphate, an ADP, a hydrogen ion and a SAICAR. SAICAR interacts with an adenylosuccinate lyase resulting in a fumaric acid and an AICAR. AICAR interacts with a formyltetrahydrofolate through a AICAR transformylase / IMP cyclohydrolase resulting in a release of a tetrahydropterol mono-l-glutamate and a FAICAR. The latter compound, FAICAR, interacts in a reversible reaction through a AICAR transformylase / IMP cyclohydrolase resulting in a release of water and Inosinic acid. Inosinic acid can be metabolized to produce dGTP and dATP three different methods each. dGTP: Inosinic acid, water and NAD are processed by IMP dehydrogenase resulting in a release of NADH, a hydrogen ion and Xanthylic acid. Xanthylic acid interacts with L-glutamine, and water through an ATP driven GMP synthetase resulting in pyrophosphate, AMP, L-glutamic acid, a hydrogen ion and Guanosine monophosphate. The latter compound is the phosphorylated by reacting with an ATP driven guanylate kinase resulting in a release of ADP and a Gaunosine diphosphate. Guanosine diphosphate can be metabolized in three different ways: 1.-Guanosine diphosphate is phosphorylated by an ATP-driven nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in an ADP and a Guanosine triphosphate. This compound interacts with a reduced flavodoxin protein through a ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase resulting in a oxidized flavodoxin a water moleculer and a dGTP 2.-Guanosine diphosphate interacts with a reduced NrdH glutaredoxin-like proteins through a ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 2 resulting in the release of an oxidized NrdH glutaredoxin-like protein, a water molecule and a dGDP. The dGDP is then phosphorylated by interacting with an ATP-driven nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in an ADP and dGTP. 3.-Guanosine diphosphate interacts with a reduced thioredoxin ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 1 resulting in a release of a water molecule, an oxidized thioredoxin and a dGDP. The dGDP is then phosphorylated by interacting with an ATP-driven nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in an ADP and dGTP. dATP: Inosinic acid interacts with L-aspartic acid through an GTP driven adenylosuccinate synthase results in the release of GDP, a hydrogen ion, a phosphate and N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMP. The latter compound is then cleaved by a adenylosuccinate lyase resulting in a fumaric acid and an Adenosine monophosphate. This compound is then phosphorylated by an adenylate kinase resulting in the release of ATP and an adenosine diphosphate. Adenosine diphosphate can be metabolized in three different ways: 1.-Adenosine diphosphate is involved in a reversible reaction by interacting with a hydrogen ion and a phosphate through a ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase resulting in a hydrogen ion, a water molecule and an Adenosine triphosphate. The adenosine triphosphate interacts with a reduced flavodoxin through a ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase resulting in an oxidized flavodoxin, a water molecule and a dATP 2.- Adenosine diphosphate interacts with an reduced thioredoxin through a ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 1 resulting in a release of a water molecule, a oxidized thioredoxin and a dADP. The dADP is then phosphorylated by a nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in the release of ADP and a dATP 3.- Adenosine diphosphate interacts with an reduced NrdH glutaredoxin-like protein through a ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase 2 resulting in a release of a water molecule, a oxidized glutaredoxin-like protein and a dADP. The dADP is then phosphorylated by a nucleoside diphosphate kinase resulting in the release of ADP and a dATP
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000820

Pw000799 View Pathway

tRNA Charging

Escherichia coli
This pathway is a compilation of Escherichia coli tRNA charging reactions involving amino acids transported into the cell. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA by catalyzing the esterification of a specific cognate amino acid or its precursor to one of all its compatible cognate tRNAs to form an aminoacyl-tRNA, which plays an important role in RNA translation. 20 different Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases can make 20 different types of aa-tRNA for each amino acid according to the genetic code. This process is called "charging" or "loading" the tRNA with amino acid. Ribosome can transfer the amino acid from tRNA to a growing peptide after the tRNA is charged.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000841

Pw000821 View Pathway

Galactose Metabolism

Escherichia coli
Galactose can be synthesized through two pathways: melibiose degradation involving an alpha galactosidase and lactose degradation involving a beta galactosidase. Melibiose is first transported inside the cell through the melibiose:Li+/Na+/H+ symporter. Once inside the cell, melibiose is degraded through alpha galactosidase into an alpha-D-galactose and a beta-D-glucose. The beta-D-glucose is phosphorylated by a glucokinase to produce a beta-D-glucose-6-phosphate which can spontaneously be turned into a alpha D glucose 6 phosphate. This alpha D-glucose-6-phosphate is metabolized into a glucose -1-phosphate through a phosphoglucomutase-1. The glucose -1-phosphate is transformed into a uridine diphosphate glucose through UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. The product, uridine diphosphate glucose, can undergo a reversible reaction in which it can be turned into uridine diphosphategalactose through an UDP-glucose 4-epimerase. Galactose can also be produced by lactose degradation involving a lactose permease to uptake lactose from the environment and a beta-galactosidase to turn lactose into Beta-D-galactose. Beta-D-galactose can also be uptaken from the environment through a galactose proton symporter. Galactose is degraded through the following process: Beta-D-galactose is introduced into the cytoplasm through a galactose proton symporter, or it can be synthesized from an alpha lactose that is introduced into the cytoplasm through a lactose permease. Alpha lactose interacts with water through a beta-galactosidase resulting in a beta-D-glucose and beta-D-galactose. Beta-D-galactose is isomerized into D-galactose. D-Galactose undergoes phosphorylation through a galactokinase, hence producing galactose 1 phosphate. On the other side of the pathway, a gluose-1-phosphate (product of the interaction of alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate with a phosphoglucomutase resulting in a alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate, an isomer of Glucose 1-phosphate, or an isomer of Beta-D-glucose 1-phosphate) interacts with UTP and a hydrogen ion in order to produce a uridine diphosphate glucose. This is followed by the interaction of galactose-1-phosphate with an established amount of uridine diphosphate glucose through a galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, which in turn output a glucose-1-phosphate and a uridine diphosphate galactose. The glucose -1-phosphate is transformed into a uridine diphosphate glucose through UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. The product, uridine diphosphate glucose, can undergo a reversible reaction in which it can be turned into uridine diphosphategalactose through an UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, and so the cycle can keep going as long as more lactose or galactose is imported into the cell
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0000834

Pw000814 View Pathway

Methionine Biosynthesis

Escherichia coli
This pathway shows the biosynthesis of methionine, which is an energy-costly process. Lysine biosynthesis produces L-Aspartate-semialdehyde, which later on is catalyzed to L-homoserine by bifunctional aspartokinase (also named homoserine dehydrogenase) 1 and 2. Homoserine is then activated by O-succinylation to form O-succinyl-L-homoserine via homoserine O-succinyltransferase (metA). Combining with L-cysteine, O-succinyl-L-homoserine form L-cystathionine and succinic acid by cystathionine gamma-synthase (metB). Cleavage of L-cystathionine by cystathionine beta-lyase (metC) or Protein MalY(as ) generates two small molecules: homocysteine and 2-aminoprop-2-enoate. Methionine synthase(MetH) or 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine methyltransferase(MetE) will catalyzehomocysteine to form the final product: methionine. In E.coli, MetH can only function with existence of cobalamin (Vitamin B12), which can be available in the guy; without cobalamin, MetE will not be repressed so that it will catalyze the methionine. Methionine can be transported out of cell (into periplasmic space) by leucine efflux transporter.
Metabolite
Metabolic

SMP0002080

Pw002068 View Pathway

4-Aminobutanoate Degradation I

Escherichia coli
Putrescine is an organic chemical produced when amino acids are broken down in organsisms, both living and dead. It can be used as a carbon and nitrogen source in E. coli, and is broken down into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this pathway, GABA from putrescine degradation reacts with oxoglutaric acid in a reversible reaction catalyzed by 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. This reaction forms succinic acid semialdehyde, as well as L-glutamic acid as a byproduct. Succinic acid semialdehyde is then converted to succinic acid in a reaction catalyzed by succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, using NAD as a cofactor. Succinic acid can then be used by the bacteria in the TCA cycle.
Metabolite
Metabolic
Showing 1 - 10 of 190793 pathways